Alexander Graham Bell does possess the patent for the telephone, that much is affirmed.
It turned out that Antonio, being an impoverished man, was unable to afford to submit a full patent application at the time, so had to submit what was, in essence, a notice of intention to file a patent (a caveat) that had to be renewed to continue to be valid.
- a. This is acceptable practice. The original text has been paraphrased so the author does not need to use quotation marks.
- b. This constitutes plagiarism, as only a few words have been changed from the original source.
- c. I’m not sure.
Scenario (3): if the following were to appear in an essay, would it constitute plagiarism?
As noted by Penn (2018) “Alexander Graham Bell does have the patent for the telephone, that much is true. However, in 2002 the US Congress passed a resolution to acknowledge Antonio Meucci’s role in the invention of the telephone in 1871.
This was some five years before the patent from Alexander Graham Bell was filed” (p. 113).
- a. This is acceptable practice as the words of the original source have been delineated via quotation marks, the original source has been cited and a page reference given for the quotation.
- b. This constitutes plagiarism. It’s not permissible for the author to use the wording of the original text, even if the use of quotation marks and citation is technically correct.
- c. I’m not sure.
80 ◆ Academic integrity and referencing How do you think you did in that little quiz? In their experiment, Murray et al. asked first-year undergraduate students to rate themselves on their ethical behaviour and record whether they had experienced previous training or education about cheating, plagiarism or student misconduct. They then gave them the same scenarios that I’ve just given you (albeit with different subject matter) and asked the students to comment on their legitimacy.
Students predominantly identified themselves as being ethical
with only 5% giving themselves a rating below the mid-point on the ethical scale used. Furthermore, 93% of them reported having previous training or educational experience in academic integrity. However, 40% of the students failed to identify the first scenario as plagiarism, 62% of them failed to identify the second scenario as plagiarism and 13% of them failed to identify the third scenario as legitimate conduct.
Similarly, Newton (2016) found a discrepancy between undergraduate student confidence in their knowledge of plagiarism and their performance on quite rudimentary tests of referencing.
Your knowledge of academic integrity may be deficient, even if you identify yourself as a highly ethical person and have had previous educational exposition on the subject. Such deficiencies can lead to transgressions in academic integrity born of ignorance rather than deliberate dishonesty.
Unfortunately, just because you didn’t intend any wrongdoing doesn’t mean that you won’t be held accountable for it. It’s these kinds of transgressions that this chapter will equip you to avoid. Let’s start off by introducing the fundamental tools of academic integrity: citation; quotation; and referencing.