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Academic integrity transgressions are often the product of ignorance

Academic integrity transgressions are often the product of ignorance
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Ignorance isn’t a defence The first of the above four scenarios can be distinguished from the other three in terms of premeditation. 

It would be very difficult for you to argue that you intended no impropriety if you purchased or stole an essay from another person. However, you could fall foul of the other three scenarios simply because of ignorance of the appropriate citation and referencing conventions, without the intent to do anything improper. Let’s illustrate this point with a little test based on some research by Murray, Henslee and Ludlow (2015). I’m going to give you a piece of source text from yours truly, then three hypothetical scenarios based on that text. 

Your job is simply to state whether you think each scenario is legitimate academic practice or plagiarism. 

If you don’t know, then just note that you couldn’t decide. Source text Alexander Graham Bell does have the patent for the telephone, that much is true. However, in 2002 the US Congress passed a resolution to acknowledge Antonio Meucci’s role in the invention of the telephone in 1871. This was some five years before the patent from Alexander Graham Bell was filed. It transpired that, being a poor man, Antonio was unable to afford to submit a full patent application at the time. 

Therefore, he had to submit what was effectively a notice of intention to file a patent (a caveat) that had to be renewed to remain valid. Scenario (1): if the following extract were to appear in an essay, would it constitute plagiarism? As noted by Penn (2018), Alexander Graham Bell does have the patent for the telephone, that much is true. However, in 2002 the US Congress passed a resolution to acknowledge Antonio Meucci’s role in Academic integrity and referencing ◆ 79 the invention of the telephone in 1871. This was some five years before the patent from Alexander Graham Bell was filed (p. 113). 

  1. a. This is acceptable practice (providing there is a corresponding entrance in the reference section) because the original author’s work has been cited and the page reference for the quotation given. 
  2. b. This constitutes plagiarism, as quotation marks have not been used to denote the author’s original words. 
  3. c. I’m not sure. Scenario 
make learning about academic integrity a priority.

Make learning about academic integrity a priority.

The following extract were to appear in an essay

The following extract was to appear in an essay